An Eye Opening Account of Crime-Politics Nexus
VOHRA COMMITTEE REPORT
(As available to the Petitioner)
Ministry of Home Affairs
Government had (through its order No.S/7937/SS(ISP)/93
dated 9th July 93 established Committee, comprised as below, to take stock of all available information about the
activities of Crime Syndicates/Mafia organisations which had developed links with and were being protected by Government functionaries
and political personalities. Based on the recommendations of the Committee, Government shall determine the need, if any to
establish a special organisation/agency to regularly collect information and pursue cases against such elements:
(ii) Secretary ® Member
(iv) Director CBI Member
JS (PP) MHA
The Committee was authorised to invite senior
officers of various concerned Departments to gather the required information.
Special Secretary (Internal Security & Police),
MHA, was subsequently added as member of the Committee. The Committee was desired to submit its report within 3 months.
In the first meeting of the Committee (held
on 15th July’93), I had explained to the members that the Government had established the Committee after
seeing the report of our intelligence and Investigation agencies on the activities/linkages of the Dawood Ibrahim gang, consequently
to the Bomb blasts in Bombay in March 1993. From these various reports, it was apparent that the activities of Memon Brothers
and Dawood Ibrahim had progressed over the years, leading to the establishment of a powerful network. This could not have
happened without these elements having been protected by the functionaries of the concerned Government departments specially
Customs, Income Tax, Police and others. It was, therefore, necessary to identify the linkage and to also determine how such
information could be timely collected and acted upon in future.
In the course of the discussions, I perceived
that some of the Members appeared to have some hesitation in openly expressing their views and also seemed unconvinced that
Government actually intended to pursue such matters. Accordingly, I addressed separate personal letters to each of the Members
of the Committee seeking their well-considered suggestions and recommendations. The responses are briefly brought out below.
The various offices abroad of this Agency have
limited strength and are largely geared to the collection of military, economic, scientific and political intelligence. R&AW
monitor the activities of certain organisations abroad only insofar as they relate to their involvement with narco-terrorist
elements and smuggling arms, ammunition, explosives, etc. into the country. It does not monitor the activities of criminal
elements abroad which are mainly confined to “normal smuggling without any links to terrorist elements”. The present
strength of the Agency’s office abroad would not permit it to enlarge its field of activities. If, however, there is
evidence to suggest that these organisations have links with intelligence agencies of other countries, particularly Pakistan,
and they are being used or are likely to be used by such countries for destabilising our economy, it would become R&AW’s
responsibility to monitor their activities, as is being done by this Agency to collect vital information in regard to the
investigations in the Bombay bomb blasts case.
The creation of a nodal agency to collect information
regarding the activities of Mafia organisations is very essential. All the existing information/data available with R&AW,
IB, CBI could be made available to this nodal agency. R&AW will nominate an officer of suitable rank to liaise with nodal
agency on a regular basis to enable expeditious follow-up action.
A report on the nexus between the Bombay City
Police and the Bombay under-world, was prepared by CBI in 1986. It would be useful institute a fresh study
by CBI, on the basis of which appropriate administrative/legal measures could be initiated.
An organised crime Syndicate/Mafia generally
commences its activities by indulging in petty crimes at the local level, mostly related to illicit distillation/gambling/organised
seta and prostitution in the larger towns, in port towns, their activities involve smuggling and sale of imported goods and
progressively graduate to narcotics and drug trafficking. In the bigger cities, the main source of income relates to real
estate- forcibly occupying lands/buildings, procuring such properties at cheap rates by forcing out the existing occupants/tenants
etc. Over time, the money power thus acquired is used for building up contacts with bureaucrats and politicians and expansion
of activities with impunity. The money power is used to develop a network of muscle-power which is also used by politicians
CBI has reported that all over India crime Syndicates have become a law unto themselves.
Even in the smaller towns and rural areas, muscle-men have become the order of the day. Hired assassins have become a part
of these organisations. The nexus between the criminal gangs, police, bureaucracy and politicians has come out clearly in
various parts of the country. The existing criminal justice system, which was essentially designed to deal with the individual
offences/crimes, is unable to deal with the activities of the mafia; the provisions of law in regards to economic offences
are weak; there are insurmountable legal difficulties in attaching/confiscation of the property acquired through Mafia activities.
It has been suggested that the menace has first
to be tackled at the local level where the agencies of the State and the concerned Central Enforcement Agencies like Customs
and Excise, Income-Tax etc. would be required to take effective action. In cases where a crime Syndicate has graduated to
big business, it would be necessary to conduct detailed investigations into its assets, both movable and immovable. It has
been stressed that when such action is not timely and effectively taken, the lower functionaries of the concerned State and
Central Departments/organisations start overlooking the activities of the crime Syndicates. To elucidate this point, the Director
CBI has given example of IQBAL MIRCHI of Bombay who till the late 80’s, was merely a visitor to passenger and carrier
ships to obtain liquor and cigarettes for selling the same at a profit. In the last 3-4 years, Mirchi acquired real estate
valuing crores of rupees; he has many bank accounts and has been paying lakhs of rupees to his carriers. The growth of MIRCHI
is due to the fact that the concerned Enforcement agencies did not timely taken action against him and, later, this perhaps
became difficult on account of the enormous patronage that he had developed. If MIRCHI is investigated, the entire patronage
enjoyed by him and his linkages will come to light. Director CBI has observed that there are many such cases, as that of MIRCHI
where the initial failure has led to the emergence of Mafia giants who have become too big to be tackled.
Director CBI has stated that the main mode of
communications/contacts of the Mafias operating at the international level is through telephonic communications. Referring
to the useful leads emerging from the investigations into the activities of Dawood Ibrahim, a Mafia leader, the director CBI
has stated that the effective monitoring of the telephonic calls made from India/received from abroad would yield useful information
and, for this being done, Government may grant sanction to monitor certain telephonic connections.
The assistance of Banks in an essential input.
The Bank Managers can be placed under obligations to render reports on all heavy transactions and suspicious accounts to the
Enforcement agencies. Such a practice obtains in U. K.
Concluding his analysis, Director CBI has made
the following suggestions to bring under control the activities of the criminal Syndicates:
Identification of offences and awards of deterrent
punishments including preventive detention.
Trial procedures should be simplified and hastened.
Surveillance should be carried out through finger
printing, photographs and dossiers.
Monitoring mechanisms should be established
at the State and Central levels.
Establishment of Special Cells in the States
CIDs and CBI.
Suitable amendments should be introduced in
the existing laws to more effectively deal with the activities of Mafia organisations, etc.; this could also include review
of the existing laws.
A detailed case study of10-15 case would provide
useful information regarding the administrative/legal measures which would be required to be taken to effectively tackle the
functioning of Mafia organisations. The CBI can do this within a short period.
DIB has reported that due to the progressive
decline in the values of public life in the country “warning signals of sinister linkage between the underworld politicians
and the bureaucracy have been evident with disturbing regularity, as exemplified by the exposures of the networks of the Bombay
Bomb Blast case”. He has recommended immediate attention to: -
Identification of the nexus between the criminals/mafias
and antinational elements on the one hand and bureaucrats, politicians and other sensitively located individuals on the other.
Identification of the nature and dimensions
of these linkages and the modus operandi of their operations.
Assessment of the impact of these linkages on
the various institutions viz., the electoral, political, economic, law and order and the administrative apparatus.
Nexus, if any, between the domestic linkages
with foreign intelligence.
Necessary action to show effective action to
counteract/neutralise the Mafia activities.
Political and legal constrains in dealing with
the covert/illegal functioning of the linkages.
Like the Director CBI, the DIB has also stated
that there has been a rapid spread and growth of criminal gangs, armed senas, drug mafias, smuggling gangs, drug peddlers
and economic lobbies in the country which have, over the years, developed an extensive network of contacts with bureaucrats/Governments
functionaries at the local levels, politicians, media persons and strategically located individuals in the non-State sector.
Some of these syndicates also have international linkages, including the foreign intelligence agencies. In this context, the
DIB has given the following examples: -
In certain States, like Bihar,
Haryana and UP, these gangs enjoy the patronage of local level politicians, cutting across party lines and the protection
of Government functionaries. Some political leaders become the leaders of these gangs/armed senas and, over the years, get
themselves elected to local bodies, State Assemblies and the National parliament. Resultantly, such elements have acquired
considerable political clout seriously jeopardising the smooth functioning of the administration and the safety of life and
property of the common man, causing a sense of despair and alienation among the people.
The big smuggling Syndicates, having international
linkages, have spread into and infected the various economic and financial activities, including havala transactions, circulation
of black money and operations of a vicious parallel economy causing serious damage to the economic fibre of the country. These
Syndicates have acquired substantial financial and muscle power and social respectability and have successfully corrupted
the Government machinery at all levels and yield enough influence to make the task of investigating and prosecuting agencies
extremely difficult; even the members of the judicial system have not escaped the embrace of the mafia.
Certain elements of the mafia have shifted to
narcotics, drugs and weapon smuggling and established narco-terrorist networks, specially in the States of J&K, Punjab,
Gujarat and Maharashtra. The cost of contesting elections has thrown the politicians into
the lap of these elements and led to a grave compromise by officials of the preventive/detective system. The virus has spread
to almost all the centres in the country; the coastal and the border States
have been particularly affected.
The Bombay bomb
blast case and the communal riots in Surat and Ahmedabad have
demonstrated how the Indian underworld has been exploited by the Pak ISI and the latter’s network in UAE to cause sabotage,
subversion and communal tension in various parts of the country. The investigations into the Bombay bomb blast cases have revealed extensive linkages of the underworld in the various
governmental agencies, political circles, business sector and the film world.
DBI has stated that the network of the Mafia
is virtually running a parallel Government, pushing the State apparatus into irrelevance. It is thus most immediately necessary
that an institution is established to effectively deal with the menace. In this connection, DIB has stated: -
Presently, there is no system/mechanism which
is specially designated to collect and collate intelligence pertaining to the linkages developed by crime Syndicates/Mafia
with the governmental set up. Nonetheless, the various intelligence/investigation/enforcement agencies collect, in the normal
course of their functioning, information about the nexus between the bureaucracy and politicians with Mafia gangs, smugglers
and the underworld. These agencies use such available inputs “only within the narrow confines of their work charter
and choose not to take undue cognisance and follow-up action, leave alone sharing with any other agencies”. Thus, all
these agencies “function within their own cocoons, with the result that a plethora of information fails to get specific
and purposeful attention needed for the exposure of the linkages”. It is, therefore, necessary to immediately have an
institutionalised system which “while giving total freedom to the various agencies to pursue their charter of work,
would simultaneously cast on them the onus of sharing such inputs to a nodal outfit whose job will be to process this information
for attention of a single designated authority”. This will enable the Nodal Group to provide useful leads to the various
agencies and, over time, a progressive data will get generated “to facilitate periodic reviews and analysis which could
then be passed to a designated body”.
As would be seen from the afore-stated brief
discussions, specially the views expressed by Director CBI and DIB, it is evident that the muscle power of the crime Syndicates
is sustained by their enormous financial power which, in turn, is secured by the Mafia elements by committing economic offences
with impunity. In this context, I held detailed personal discussions with Secretary (Revenue) under whose control operate
the various economic intelligence/investigative/enforcement agencies.
The Department of Revenue functions through
the following major agencies: -
Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC)
CBEC is responsible for the prevention of smuggling. In this and other tasks, it is assisted by the Director General of
Revenue Intelligence (DGR) and Directorate General of Anti-Evasion (DGAE). The DGRI deals with the evasion of customs
duties; the DGAE with Excise duty evasion.
Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT)
Income Tax Department administers the Income Tax Act, Wealth Tax
Central Economic Intelligence Bureau (CEIB)
The CEIB is responsible for coordinating and strengthening the intelligence
gathering activities and the investigative and enforcement actions of the various agencies responsible for investigation into
economic offences and the enforcement of economic laws. The CEIB is responsible for maintaining liaison with the concerned
Departments/Directorates both at the Centre and at the State levels and is expected to provide overall direction to the investigative
agencies under the Department of Revenue.
The CEIB is expected, interalia, to attend to the following tasks:
(a) Identification of major sources generating black money; directing and developing
intelligence about such sources; planning and coordinating action and operations against such sources.
(b) Assisting the various enforcement agencies in strengthening the intelligence
gathering infrastructure and building up their capability for storage and retrieval of intelligence.
(c) Conducting investigative and analytical studies in difficult areas of black
money operations and monitoring indicators thereof.
This Directorate is concerned with the enforcement of the investigation
and penal provision of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act; collection of intelligence relating to foreign exchange offences;
enquiries into suspected violations of the provisions of FERRA, etc.
Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)
The NCB is responsible for the administration of the Narcotics Drugs
and Psychotropic Act. It is responsible for coordination with different Central and State Government Departments/Ministries
and the various Central and State law enforcement agencies for the implementation of NDPS Act.
I explained a Secretary (Revenue) the broad
considerations on account of which the government had set up a Committee to look into the linkages developed by the Mafia
elements. He informed me that he had recently held a meeting with senior representatives of the RBI, the Chairman CBEC, Chairman
CBDT and the Economic Intelligence Council in the Department of Revenue, and readily agreed with my request to attend a meeting
of the Committee along with his concerned officers for a full discussion on the issues before the Committee. Accordingly,
I arranged a meeting of the Committee (30th Aug ’93) to hear the view of Secretary (Revenue), who was accompanied
by Chairman CBDT, DGRI, Member (Customs) and Director (Enforcement). During the course of the discussions with Secretary (Revenue)
and his aforesaid principal officers, the following significant observations were made: -
In the normal course of his work, to detect
violations of Customs & Excise laws, DGRI comes across information of linkages between crime Syndicates and Governmental
functionaries etc. As following up of such information is not within the charter of duties of DGRI, his officers focus primarily
on the information relating to the violation of the laws relating to their charter.
As in the case of DGRI, Indirect information
also becomes available to the CBDT about linkages. Here again, not being directly relating to their charter of responsibilities,
the CBDT do not follow up such leads.
While the NCB is specifically responsible for
booking drug traffickers, with the increasing importance being given to Narco-terrorism, the NCB have been asked to gather
further information so that the real king-pins in the narcotics trade can be apprehended.
The Directorate of Enforcement comes across
information on linkages and passes it on to the CBI and IB.
Of late, currency amounting crores of rupees
in being seized, invariably packed in suit-cases and gunny bags. The Banks are reluctant to pass on information about account
holders to CBDT and do not allow their officers to hold exploratory enquiries.
While a certain amount of information is shared
between the various organisations under the Department of Revenue, and those under the MHA and Cabinet Secretariat, the exchanges
are sporadic and limited. This is perhaps due to the fact that each concerned organisation/agency is anxious to protect its
sources and is apprehensive that a full sharing of all information might jeopardise its operations, on account of premature
leakage of information.
While DGRI, Director (Enforcement) and DG NCB
authorised to undertake phone tapping of suspected offenders, the DGRI has not been allowed to enforce surveillance on the
telephonic communications of political personalities.
Senior Police officers, even in the border States, are not trained or adequately informed of the work done
by the directorate of Enforcement, specially in regard to money laundering operations.
Information about the activities of drug traffickers
is passed on by DG NCB to the concerned State Governments and their agencies. However, niggardly responses by the latter and
prolonged delays in the disposal of cases before Courts seriously hampers the effective functioning of the NCB. While the
NDPS act prescribes the award of deterrent punishments of offences, the results are to the contrary. It is necessary that
the directorates of prosecution in the State Governments are urgently brought under the control of the State Police.
Secretary (Revenue) stated that he field officers
of his various Departments were faced with various problems, amongst which are:
The utter inadequacy of the criminal system;
cases are not heard timely; functioning of the Government lawyers is grossly inadequate; all this results in a low percentage
of convictions and mild punishments. Under the criminal justice system is geared up, the work of the enforcement agencies
cannot be effective.
The field officers of the various agencies of
the Revenue Departments are often pressurised by senior government functionaries/political leaders apparently at the behest
of crime Syndicates/Mafia elements. Unless the field level officers are offered effective protection, they cannot be expected
to maintain interest in vigorously pursuing action against the activities of such elements.
Chairman CBDT stated that insofar as the functioning
of his officers is concerned, whenever they come into possession of any information regarding the violation of any other law,
they pass it on to the concerned agency. He suggested that if the information available wit other agencies is passed on to
him, his officers could pursue the same.
As a result of the discussions held by the Committee
with Secretary (Revenue) and his principal officers, it is evident that:
While, in the course of their normal activities,
information on the linkages of the crime Syndicates sometimes become available, such information is not pursued on the score
that it is not directly related to offences falling within the laws administered by these agencies;
Such information is occasionally passed on by
these agencies to the CBI and or IB;
The various agencies under the Department of
Revenue do not specifically search on the linkages of crime Syndicates.
Consequent to the Committee’s discussions
with the Secretary (Revenue) and his principal officers, I held a series of further personal discussions with the Secretary
(Revenue). At my request Secretary (Revenue) gave me a personal note indicating his views, which are briefly as below:-
The information gathered by the various agencies
under the Revenue Department, while gathering intelligence on offences relating to the laws administered by them, is generally
not put to any use unless it is required to the passed on to the passed on to the other intelligence agencies outside the
Department of Revenue.
The linkages developed by crime syndicated get
generally confirmed when pressure is mounted on the concerned agencies not to take action against the offenders or to go slow
in the cases against them. Such pressures are mounted either immediately after a raid is conducted or at the time when prosecution
is about to be initiated. Pressures are also exerted whenever corrupt and undesirable officers are shifted from sensitive
assignments (Preventive Customs Divisions at the Airports, sensitive Collectorates in the Central Excise etc.)
In the narcotics arena, which includes cultivation
of opium, manufacture of alkaloids, prevention of narcotics, smuggling etc. the financial stakes are astronomically high,
Consequently, the level of corruption is of a very high order in this area of functioning and enormous pressures are brought
to bear even when subordinate officials are posted away, specially when the shift of an officer adversely affects the interests
of those who are making easy money.
Narcotics trade has a world-wide network of
smugglers who also have close links with terrorists. Terrorists indulge in narcotics trade to amass huge funds, in various
foreign currencies, from which they source their procurement of weapons etc.
While the Department of Revenue has initiated
a number of steps to deal with the activities of smugglers and to plug loopholes in the system, Secretary (Revenue) has stated
that a possible approach to effectively liquidating the linkages developed by the crime Syndicates would be to mercilessly
prosecute the offenders without succumbing to any pressure whatsoever. He is of the view that once the offenders are deterrently
punished under the law, their influence and strength will start declining, as also of all those who support them, wherever
located. He has emphasised that for this objective being achieved it will be extremely necessary that: the entire government
machinery involved in taking action against the crime Syndicate is allowed to perform its duties with total freedom; officers
with impeccable integrity should be posted to head the various organisations which are responsible for taking action against
tax offenders, smugglers etc; such officers should be selected with utmost care and provided sufficiently long tenures, giving
them the clear mandate to ruthlessly punish the offenders; action must be taken to ensure the objective functioning of Courts
which deal with the trial of economic offences; all cases before the Courts should be speedily concluded without the judicial
officers coming under any pressure or succumbing to temptations; inefficient and corrupt elements in the various organisations
must be weeded out and Government should take stringent action against officers who seek to exert political pressure for securing
postings and appointments of their choice.
From the above narrated analysis, the following
conclusions can be drawn: -
On the basis of the extensive experience gained
by our various concerned intelligence, investigative and enforcement agencies, it is apparent that crime Syndicate and Mafia
organisations have established themselves in various parts of the country.
The various crime Syndicates/Mafia organisations
have developed significant muscle and money power and established linkages with governmental functionaries, political leaders
and others to be able to operate with impunity (as recently exemplified by the activities of the Memon Brothers and Dawood
While the CBI and IB and the various agencies
under the Department of Revenue, in their normal course of functioning, come across information relating to the linkages of
crime Syndicates/Mafia organisations, there is presently no system under which they are expected to pass on such information
to an identical nodal agency. Sharing of such information is presently of an occasional nature an no evidence is available
of the same having been put to any operational use (the only mentionable exception perhaps related to the recent investigations
into the activities of Memon Brothers and the Dawood gang on which several of our agencies were put to work collectively.
Even where an agency comes across certain information
about the linkages of crime Syndicates, it has no mandate to immediately pass it on to one or more agencies. Any agency which
comes across information regarding linkages is also apprehensive that the sharing of such information may jeopardize its own
functioning through premature leakage. In slum, the various agencies presently in the field take care to essentially focus
on their respective character of duties, dealing with the infringement of laws relating to their organisations and consciously
putting aside any information on linkages which they may come across.
In the discussions in the Committee, I asked
each of the Members as well as the Secretary (Revenue) and his principal officers about their views regarding the establishment
of a Nodal Agency for the collection, collation and operationalisation of all information relating to the activities of crime
Syndicates. Broadly, the following approaches have been mooted:
The DIB has stated that while considering the
establishment of any nodal mechanism “It must be appreciated that the problems has enormous impact on national security
and is indeed highly political in nature”. In this context, he has suggested
that the nodal set up should be under the IB, which is even otherwise engaged in monitoring various political activities having
a bearing on national security. He has recommended that “an exclusive Top Secret Cell be established in the IB to function
as Nodal Group for receipt of inputs from various security/revenue agencies which reveal political-bureaucrat-underworld nexus.
Such sharing will be through personal communication in writing, while operating difficulties could be sorted out through periodic
meetings among the heads of these organisations to be chaired by the Home Secretary”. The Top secret Cell will share
all tactical and operational information with other concerned agencies on “need to know and act basis”.
The other approach recommended is to set up
a system under which the Head of the Various Intelligence and Revenue Agencies shall meet on a regular basis and exchange
vital information, without there being any leakage.
In the background of the discussions so far,
there does not appear to be need for any further debate on the vital importance of setting up a nodal point to which all existing
Intelligence and Enforcement agencies (irrespective of the Department under which they are located) shall promptly pass on
any information which they may come across, which relates to the activities of crime Syndicates.
If the proposition in the preceding para is
sustained, a decision will need to be taken regarding the Department/Ministry under which the nodal set-up should be located.
14.1 Under the existing arrangements for the transaction of Government business, the Ministry
of Home Affairs is responsible for all matters relating to
internal security. It is for this reason that the Intelligence Bureau is a part
and parcel of this Ministry (It is only by tradition that the DIB reports directly to authorities outside MHA). R&AW functions
under the Cabinet Secretariat and deals with external intelligence. The various Intelligence, Investigation and Enforcement
agencies dealing with the implementation of economic laws report to the Revenue Department under the Ministry of Finance.
The CBI, which is the principal criminal investigation agency of the Centre, is under the department of Personnel.
14.2 In my view, considerable care would have to be taken to ensure that the information which
becomes available to the Nodal Cell is handled by a very senior and trust-worthy officer. Any leakage of such information
would not only jeopardize potential action against the powerful criminal Syndicate, but may also be susceptible to political
exploitation. Under all circumstances, it will have be ensured that the information available with the nodal set-up is used
strictly and entirely for stringent action against the crime Syndicates, without allowing any scope whatever of its being
exploited for political gain.
14.3 In the preceding context, it would be logical it the nodal set-up is under the MHA, directly
handed by the Home Secretary who can be assisted by one or more selected officers of the Ministry for the collation and compilation
of all information received from IB, CBI, R&AW and the various agencies under the Department of Revenue. The manner in
which such information is operationalised would need to be confidentially discussed with the concerned Head of Organisations
and, as necessary, with Secretary (Revenue). It will also need to be ensured
that the nodal set-up functions with extreme secrecy. Needless to say, and leakage whatever about the linkages of crime Syndicate
with senior Government functionaries or political leaders in the States or at the Centre could have a destabilising effect
on the functioning of Government. As such, it would not appear prudent to entrust the functioning of the Nodal Cell to any
level below that of the Home Secretary. Further, the Government would also have to carefully consider and prescribe the authorities
to whom the Home Secretary will report in regard to the sensitive information received by the nodal set-up as well as regarding
the operations to be launched by one or more of the concerned agencies to apprehend, investigate and prosecute the offenders.
In the normal course, this Report would have
been drafted by the Member Secretary and finalised by the Committee. Considering the nature of the issues involved, I did
not consider it desirable to burden the Members of the Committee with any further involvement beyond the views expressed by
them. Accordingly, I decided to personally dictate this Report.
I have prepared only three copies of this report.
One copy each is being submitted to MOS(IS) and HM, the third copy being retained by me. After HM has pursued this Report,
I request him to consider discussing further action with finance Minister, MOS (IS) and myself. The emerging approach could
therefore be got approved from Prime Minister before being implemented. At that stage other concerned senior officer would
be taken into confidence.
After an initial discussion at the level of
MOS(IS) and HM I could send a copy of this Report to FM, before the issues are discussed with him.
HM (Copy No.1/3)
HM (Copy No.2/3)